Critical Race Theory

Three new books on Critical Race theory have been added to the Ramsey County Law Library.

Three new books on Critical Race theory have been added to the Ramsey County Law Library.

Critical Race Theory (or CRT) is defined by Britannica as “the view that the law and legal institutions are inherently racist and that race itself, instead of being biologically grounded and natural, is a socially constructed concept that is used by white people to further their economic and political interests at the expense of people of colour.”

This week’s blog features two books about CRT.  They are scholarly works that offer a deep dive into the topic.  These rigorous studies of CRT provide a “radical and challenging perspective that reveals how racism shapes the everyday reality of the world; from law courts and prisons, to the economy, schools, media, and health care.” (David Gillborn, Professor, University of Birmingham, UK)

Critical Race Theory: An Introduction by Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, (New York University Press, 2017), describes CRT as comprising activists and scholars who question the foundations of the liberal order, including equality theory and neutral principles of constitutional law.  Seen as fostering a movement, CRT builds on previous movements (critical legal studies and radical feminism). The book gives an introductory overview that includes criticism from both the left and the right.

Another book that the law library has on CRT is called Race and Racialization: Essential Readings.  The second edition of this title was published in 2018 and is a collection of scholarly essays describing race and how racial tensions intersect with gender, economic status, ethnicity, and sexuality.  The essays are not limited to views from the United States, and in fact, many of the pieces describe these issues occurring in Canada and other countries to show that difficulties with racism are not unique to the United States.

The book is organized by sections, each dealing with a different perspective on racism: colonialism, institutional racism, ethnocentrism, privilege, marginalization, and resistance.  The essays span decades of research and discussion on race.  The first essay in the book, which proposes that racism is not biologically inherent in people but is a learned behavior, was written in 1931.  The essays at the end of the book are much more current as the last essay examines the origins of the Black Lives Matter movement in Toronto.

This week’s blog also features a scholarly work that examines the philosophy of race and race as phenomena.  Race as Phenomena: Between Phenomenology and Philosophy of Race is edited by Emily S. Lee (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019).  The book is a collection of intellectual, well-researched essays that are written by important contributors to the field.  The essays “examine persistent questions within philosophy of race, from how to conceptualize race to the lived experience of blackness and whiteness.”  (Introduction)  The work includes essays that describe race consciousness as phenomenologically understood, the black body and the phenomenology of being stopped, and seeing like a cop.

These books are available at the Ramsey County Law Library.

Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, Critical Race Theory (Third Edition): An Introduction, New York: NYU Press, 2017.

Race and Racialization:  Essential Readings, 2nd Edition, Tania Das Gupta, Carl E James, Chris Andersen eds., Toronto: Canadian Scholars, 2018.

Race as Phenomena: Between Phenomenology and Philosophy of Race, Emily S. Lee, ed., Rowman & Littlefield, 2019.



Two views on racism

Kendi-How to be an antiracist

When we say that racism is systemic, it is to say that it is so embedded into our culture that we aren’t aware that it is there.  That is how Ibram X. Kendi starts off his book, How to be an Antiracist.  In the forward, he describes how his self-doubt and confidence was so low that he had only applied to two colleges so he’d only have to deal with two rejection letters.  (He was accepted by both.)  Later, as he looked back at his life, he wondered if he should have taken more history classes and paid more attention when he was growing up.   One moment stands out:  He recalls with chagrin that he was a young, Black, high school student presenting at a Martin Luther King, Jr. speech contest.  The irony of the moment was that he was representing his high school that was named after General Stonewall Jackson, legendary Confederate General.

Kendi combines personal stories, historic events, and snippets from well-known authors to illustrate the point that it isn’t enough to not be a racist:  One must strive to be an anti-racist.  He explains:

What’s the problem with being “not racist”?  It is a claim that signifies neutrality: “I am not a racist, but neither am I aggressively against racism.”  But there is no neutrality in the racism struggle.  The opposite of “racist” isn’t “not racist.”  It is “antiracist.”

As Kendi goes through different chapters of the book, he shows how racism is embedded into all facets of our culture.  Assumptions and judgments about people who are not like ourselves are part of everyone’s identity, he writes, even his own.  In a chapter on sexuality, he confronts his own assumptions he had about gay men when he discovered his best friend’s behavior didn’t match the stereotypical gay male behaviors he had learned and expected.  To save his friendship, he vowed to change.

This book is compelling because of the deft way Kendi weaves his personal stories and revelations with historical references and current events.  Yet, in spite of all the ways racism is discussed in the book, it ends optimistically.  In discovering that he had stage 4 colon cancer, he quickly sees the parallel to systemic racism today:

I have cancer.  The most serious stage.  Cancer is likely to kill me.  I can survive cancer against all odds.

My society has racism.  The most serious stage.  Racism is likely to kill my society.  My society can survive cancer against all odds. 

Aggressive treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, all were used and yes, he did survive.  He had the help and support of surgeons, pathologists, and his family.  He asks, “What if we treated racism like we do cancer?”  The lesson is that there isn’t one method to combat racism.  Ending racism isn’t just one person’s fight; everyone must contribute to the effort.   And if you are going to fight racism, you can’t just not be a racist.  Don’t be neutral, be an antiracist.

Coates-Between the world and me

In contrast, Ta-Nehisi Coates work, Between the World and Me, is a deeply personal letter to his teen-aged son.  In this narrative, Coates addresses the reality of being a Black man in the United States.  This book is grim, as he describes his fear and anger growing up in Baltimore and then going to college at Howard.  Much of the book shares his personal history and experiences, while it also reveals his anger and frustration of current events.  He is particularly angry at the persistent murders of so many Black men at the hands of white police officers and other white men for no reason other than they were wearing a hoodie or playing loud music.

The fear and suspicion that he internalized stayed with him and popped up unexpectedly years later during a trip to Paris.  He was walking down the streets after dinner because a new friend wanted to “show him an old building,” and in the back of his mind, he wasn’t sure if this really was an innocuous walk or if he was being led to an ambush in a quiet alley.  But this friend just showed him the historic building, shook his hand, and said good night.

Coates’ letter to his son has a similar theme to Kendi’s book – racism is embedded into American culture.  But in contrast, Coates’ message is for his son, and for other Black readers:  You might not be able to eliminate the racism of others.  It is their struggle, and ultimately others will have to make the change within themselves.  He tells his son that he needs to remember his history, culture, and experiences:

You are growing into consciousness, and my wish for you is that you feel no need to constrict yourself to make other people comfortable.  … I would have you be a conscious citizen of this terrible and beautiful world.

Both books are available at the Ramsey County Law Library.

Ibram X. Kendi, How to be an Antiracist, New York: One World, 2019.

Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me, New York: One World, 2015.



Let’s Talk About Truth



During July and August, the law library blog will feature titles on racism and racial equality.   These provocative and informative books reflect the challenges we all face.  They also describe perspectives and opportunities for change—and not necessarily through the court system.    Library users may check the books out by visiting the law library on the 18th floor of the court house.

This week’s blog features the titles shown above.

A Good Time for the Truth: Race in Minnesota (2016) is edited by Sun Yung Shin.  The book is the current selection of the Minnesota Center for the Book’s Statewide One Book One Minnesota book club.  The book contains 16 essays that give perspectives on Native persons as well as persons of color in Minnesota.  In the essay “Fear of a Black Mother,” author Shannon Gibney explains her struggles trying to explain American societal challenges to both her young son and her Liberian husband—and her fears about an increasingly dangerous path for people of color.   In the essay “Disparate Impacts,” by Taiyon J. Coleman, the author, who was raised in Chicago, offers her perceptions about microaggressions and microabrasions in Minnesota academia.

White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard to Talk About Racism (2018) is written by Robin Diangelo, a white woman described in the foreword as “the new racial sheriff in town.”  Diangelo explains that the way racism is taught makes it virtually impossible for white people to understand it.  The white worldview is simplistic and fails to perceive how racism evolves individually and in the community.  Fragility, according to Diangelo, arises when white people are challenged about racism—generating feelings of discomfort and defensiveness.  The result is a person’s lack of insight or advancement.  Fragility also stems from an unconscious protection of white solidarity.  The result is a position that exempts a person from any responsibility for or participation in the problem.  Diangelo advocates exploring alternate racial experiences to challenge racism and to loosen white protection.  On a hopeful note, she states that the effect of white responses can be powerful if they interrupt racism through courage and intentionality.

The two books are available for loan.  The library invites comments or suggestions for other similar book titles.


This photo of the U.S. Supreme Court was taken by Thomas Hawk in 2014.

The U.S. Supreme Court.

In the recent landmark decision, Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that existing civil rights law protects gay and transgender people from workplace discrimination.  In short, an employer who fires an individual merely for being gay or transgender violates Title VII.

Bostock, along with Altitude Express, Inc., et al. v. Zarda et al., as Co-Independent Executors of the Estate of Zarda, and R. G. & G. R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc. v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission et al., was brought before the Supreme Court because of a split in the Courts of Appeal.  The Seventh and Second Circuits held that Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on sexual orientation.  Moreover, the Sixth Circuit agreed with the EEOC that Title VII protections also applied to transgender persons, too.  On the other hand, the Appellate Court in Bostock followed precedent set by an earlier case in the Eleventh Circuit that held that discrimination based on sexual orientation is not protected under Title VII.  The three cases were consolidated and heard before the U.S. Supreme Court in the fall of 2019.  The opinion, which was delivered on Monday, June 15, 2020, was authored by Justice Gorsuch, and joined with Chief Justice Roberts and Justices Ginsburg, Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan.  Justice Alito, joined by Justice Thomas, filed a dissenting opinion, as did Justice Kavanaugh.

The opinion, though quite long, states the conclusion concisely at the start:

Today, we must decide whether an employer can fire someone simply for being homosexual or transgender.  The answer is clear.  An employer who fires an individual for being homosexual or transgender fires that person for traits or actions it would not have questioned in members of a different sex.  Sex plays a necessary and undisguisable role in the decision, exactly what Title VII forbids.

If you want to read more about Title VII actions, the Ramsey County Law Library has a substantive employment law collection with several treatises focusing discrimination.  Representing Plaintiffs in Title VII Actions, Fifth Edition, by Robert E. McKnight, is a one-volume loose-leaf title that covers all aspects of litigating a Title VII case.  This title covers prohibited practices, such as disparate treatments, harassment, retaliation, failure to provide reasonable accommodations, and more.  It proceeds to explain pre-litigation charge filing, the litigation process, and remedies.

Another title that would be of interest is Employee Dismissal Law and Practice, Seventh Edition, by Hank Perritt, Jr.   This two-volume set covers these topics:  Employment at will, statutory protection against discrimination based on characteristic, discrimination based on conduct, procedural issues for statutory discrimination, downsizing, arbitration, contract theories, tort theories, special problems of public employment, proof and procedure, employer personnel problems, and wrongful dismissal legislation.  This title has an extensive look at the appellate decision in Zarda (mentioned above) as well Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., 523 U.S. 75 (1998), which held that sexual harassment in the workplace between members of the same sex is prohibited under Title VII.  You can guarantee that both of titles will be updated soon to reflect the decision in Bostock!

In support of Pride Month, the Law Library is displaying a few titles that discuss and explain LGBT rights and the law.  We are expecting a few new books to come in soon, including a new book due in at the end of June titled Law and the Gay Rights Story: The Long Search for Equal Justice in a Divided Democracy.  We hope to see you in the Law Library soon.  Happy Pride Month!


In the most recent issue of the Ramsey County History magazine, Ramsey County Chief Judge John H. Guthmann’s piece on Clara Anderson is one of the featured articles. In this well-researched article, he describes the circumstances that led up to Ms. Anderson’s case, clearly explains the legal arguments that supported her case, and then outlines the changes to the law after she lost her final appeal in the Minnesota Supreme Court in the late spring of 1948.

Long-time readers might remember this bit of Ramsey County history from a previous blog post, but here is a quick reminder of who was Clara Anderson, and why her case is so interesting. Ms. Anderson started as a waitress at the Frederic Hotel in St. Paul, MN in 1936. In 1940, she changed jobs, and was then identified as a bartender at the same hotel. Her salary increased dramatically; as a waitress she received $45 a month (plus tips), but as a bartender, her pay increased to $200, with her room, board, and meals included.

When World War II ended and men came back from the war, they found that many of the jobs at home were being performed by women. Bartender unions, many with “male-only” membership requirements, pressured governments across the county to ban women from the lucrative bartending positions so that their male members could step into these jobs. The St. Paul City Council, with the strong encouragement of the St. Paul’s Bartender Union Local 287, passed Ordinance 8604 which prevented women (except for the owner’s wife) from tending the bar.  Understandably upset at the prospect of losing her job, Ms. Anderson sued the City of St. Paul.

We encourage you to read Judge Guthmann’s article to find out more about the case, and what happened afterwards. (Hint – eventually, St. Paul amended Ordinance 8604 in 1970.) In addition to the excellent research, the article has many pictures showing pictures of the judges, attorneys, and parties in the case, as well photos of historical downtown St. Paul. And a small plug for the law library: There is nice picture of Judge Carlton McNally, who was the first judge to weigh in on Ms. Anderson’s case. The portrait is part of the Ramsey County Law Library’s Judicial Portrait collection.




Although the law library is closed to the public, we still want to celebrate National Library Week with our annual book raffle. During our closure, volunteer attorneys continue to provide housing, conciliation, and criminal defense clinics via phone. As a small token of appreciation, the library raffled off 2 books–each going to one of our prize-winning volunteers. The library continues to provide email and phone reference and curbside book pickup for attorneys. Please call the library at 651-266-8391 for more information.

This year, we have two excellent books, Just Mercy by Bryan Stevenson.  Just Mercy is the memoir of Bryan Stevenson, civil rights attorney and founder of the Equal Justice Initiative, a human rights organization based in Montgomery, Alabama.  Mr. Stevenson has argued and won many cases, including a 2019 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that protects condemned prisoners who suffer from dementia and a landmark 2012 ruling that bans mandatory life-imprisonment-without-parole sentences for all children 17 or younger.  His book was recently adapted into a major motion picture.

Astronuts  by Jon Scieszka is the second book in our giveaway.  Jon Scieszka (rhymes with Fresca) is an award-winning children’s book author, and has sold over 11 million books worldwide.  Astronuts is the start of a new series for children, and is illustrated by Steven Weinberg.  Mr. Weinberg was inspired by the art made available by The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.  The Rijksmuseum has digitized and made their entire collection available to the world with no copyright restrictions.

We hope you are all reading interesting books and are staying safe during this time.





We’re still here to answer your questions!



Photo by Aleix Ventayol on Unsplash

While the state is under the Governor’s Stay at Home order, the law library is still available to help you with your legal research questions. The physical space is closed, and staff is working from home, but there are still many ways that we can help you:

Phone Reference: We are able to take calls between 8:00-4:30, Monday through Friday. We have access to some resources at home, including Westlaw, and are happy to answer your questions. We can also provide referrals to legal aid and other places for lawyer referrals. Remember, legal services are considered to be an essential service.  Please call us at 651.266.8391.

Email Reference: Our email is, and we are also monitoring that and answering questions as they come in.

Referrals: We can also provide referrals to legal aid, bar associations, and other organizations for lawyer referrals. Remember, legal services are considered to be an essential service. Many attorneys are still working and taking calls, even they are not at the office.

Clinics: Our Housing and Conciliation Court Clinic is on Tuesdays, and our volunteer attorneys are still available to talk to clients by phone. If you call 651-266-8391 on Tuesday after 12:30, we will set up an appointment for you to speak to one of the clinic attorneys.

Our Criminal Defense Law Clinic is also available to talk to law librarian patrons. Please call the law library on the first and third Thursday of the month, and a librarian will schedule an appointment for you.  651.226.8391.

Our Criminal Expungement Clinic is temporarily closed, but watch this space and we’ll let you know when it is up and running again.  However, the Volunteer Lawyers Network is available to answer your expungement questions.  See what they can offer on their website.

Hang in there, everyone.


March is Women’s History Month

Her Honor



This year marks the 100th anniversary of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution which legalized a woman’s right to vote.  In Minnesota, 1922 was the first year that women could run for office in the Minnesota legislature, and four of the eight women candidates who ran for office won.  In the book Her Honor:  Rosalie Wahl and the Minnesota Women’s Movement author Lori Sturdevant provides intriguing and interesting facts about the twentieth century women’s movement in Minnesota:

  • The Minnesota Women’s Suffrage Association agitated for the full enfranchisement of women for forty years before achieving success.  The organization morphed into the Minnesota League of Women Voters.
  • Cornelia “Coya” Gjesdal Knutson—12 years Rosalie’s senior—was born on a farm in North Dakota.  Despite family struggles, she rose to political significance by financing her own campaign for election to the U.S. Congress, which she won in 1954, becoming the first woman in Minnesota to do so.  Sadly, her 1958 re-election bid failed due to false statements made about her family life and troubled marriage—attributed to her DFL colleagues and husband.  Coya Knutson was a victim of the inherent sexism of her time.
  • Rosalie Wahl went to law school by financing her own way; her family was well-established by then, and yet she gave birth to a fifth child while in law school.  Overcoming many obstacles, defeats, and triumphs, Rosalie became the first woman justice appointed to the Minnesota Supreme Court in 1977.  Her appointment came amidst Minnesota’s politically active feminists maneuvering for political office.
  • After her appointment to the Minnesota Supreme Court, Justice Wahl “viewed her role as helping her colleagues see justice from the bottom up—that is, from the vantage not only of women, but also of disadvantaged people of all kinds, including those accused of serious crimes.”  In 1987, the “Minnesota Supreme Court Task Force for Gender Fairness in the Courts” was established; it was headed by Justice Wahl.
  • Justice Wahl retired from the supreme court on August 31, 1994.  She involved herself in community service, including leadership training for young women.  She lived to see more women take on leadership roles in Minnesota: Kathleen Blatz was elevated to first woman Chief Justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court; Amy Klobuchar was elected Minnesota’s first woman U.S. Senator; and DFLer Betty McCollum was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time since voters sent representative Coya Knutson home in 1958.

Her Honor:  Rosalie Wahl and the Minnesota Women’s Movement is available for check-out from the Ramsey County Law Library.











The consequences of having a criminal record can stay with a person long after time in prison is completed. Oftentimes, these crimes occurred years ago and are not a reflection of who the person is now.  Even so, having a criminal record can prevent a person from getting a job or housing, can be barred from obtaining licenses in certain professionscan be denied the right to vote, or own a gun, and more.

Expungement is the legal process of sealing a criminal record. An expunged criminal record will not be accessible to the public.  Sealing a criminal record can make it easier for you to find housing, get a job, and obtain certain types of job-related licenses.  In Ramsey County, you have many resources for getting help with expungement. Here are a few of them.

Ramsey County Criminal Expungement Clinic

The Ramsey County Law Library hosts a criminal expungement clinic every 2nd and 4th Thursdays of the month. The clinic is run by the Ramsey County Court Self-Help Center, and it is staffed by a volunteer attorney from Volunteer Lawyers Network (VLN) and local attorney volunteer Dan Shapiro. Shapiro is a long-time volunteer for this clinic, and he is also a regular volunteer with Habitat for Humanity. “Everyone deserves a place to live, and everyone deserves a second chance,” he said.

Dennis Lee Lamar Bell, Jr. is making copies of his expungement paperwork at the Ramsey County Law Library.
Dennis Lee Lamar Bell, Jr. is making copies of his expungement paperwork at the Ramsey County Law Library.


One clinic attendee who is making the most of his second chance is Dennis Lee Lamar Bell, Jr., who is working to get his record cleared. He attended the clinic to start the paperwork for getting the expungement process started, but really, he had been working on getting his expungement for much longer than that. After consulting with the volunteer attorneys at the clinic, Mr. Bell spent several hours in the library filling out his forms, making copies of pictures and documents, and getting testimonials from others to show the court how he is not the same person as he was when he committed the crime.

To assist and support clients who are completing court forms, it is the policy of the Ramsey County Law Library to honor current, signed, fee waiver forms. Litigants with a signed fee waiver can make to make photocopies of their paperwork at no charge.

Ramsey County Criminal Expungement Clinic
2nd and 4th Thursdays of each month
1:00-3:00 p.m.

Ramsey County Law Library
15 West Kellogg Blvd
1815 Court House
St. Paul, MN 55102

Call 651-266-8391 for more information.

Ramsey Criminal Defense Law Clinic

While the Criminal Expungement clinic is on the 2nd and 4th Thursdays, on the 1st and 3rd Thursdays of the month, the Ramsey County Law Library holds its newest clinic, the Ramsey Criminal Defense Law Clinic from 1:00 – 3:00 in the afternoon. While the attorneys at this clinic do not have time to walk you through the whole expungement application, they can answer questions about the process, and they can review your case to see if you qualify for expungement.

They can also answer other criminal law questions, too, like, what you should do if you missed your hearing, how to prepare for your trial, how to get copies of dashcam video, and how to subpoena witness or documents to support your case. Each client can spend up to half an hour to talk to the attorney about their legal issue, and they can definitely answer your expungement questions.

This clinic is staffed by volunteers based in the Twin Cities Metro area who have experience representing clients in Ramsey, Washington, and other counties in the Twin Cities metro area.

Ramsey Criminal Defense Law Clinic
1st and 3rd Thursdays of each month
1:00-3:00 p.m.

Ramsey County Law Library
15 West Kellogg Blvd
1815 Court House
St. Paul, MN 55102

Call 651-266-8391 for more information.

The Ramsey County Attorney’s Office as well as the Washington County Attorney’s Office will help you to determine if any offenses in your criminal history can be expunged. If you apply through the Ramsey County Attorney’s Office and you qualify for expungement, you won’t have to fill out any paperwork and you won’t have to pay any fees to get your record expunged. In fact, the County Attorney’s Office will see to the process for you. As Ramsey County Attorney John Choi said,

Prosecutors are ministers of justice. Therefore, it is our legal and ethical responsibility to help rehabilitated people who have paid their debt to society to remove the scarlet letter of a criminal conviction and the barriers it creates to accessing jobs, housing, education and other necessities in life.

Since October when the program first started, hundreds of people have applied to see if their record could be expunged. With limited staff able to review the requests, there is a small lag time from when a person applies to be considered to when they hear back from the County Attorney’s office.

Informational sessions at the St. Paul Public Library

If you are interested in learning more about the expungement process, but are not quite ready to start the process, two branches of the St. Paul Public Library host informational sessions for patrons once a month. At these sessions, volunteer attorneys from the Volunteer Lawyers Network will start with a brief presentation about criminal expungement in Minnesota. Afterwards, you can meet with volunteer attorneys who can answer your brief questions and who may also be able to connect you with other attorneys or clinics for further assistance. The locations and times for these clinics are:

Saint Paul Public Library – Arlington Hills Community Center
1200 Payne Avenue
Saint Paul, MN 55130
1st Friday of each month – noon (12:00 pm)

Saint Paul Public Library – Rondo Community Outreach Library
461 N. Dale St
Saint Paul, MN 55103
3rd Friday of each month – noon (12:00 pm)

A listing of all criminal expungement clinics in the metro area is on the VLN website here:

Expungement can remove significant barriers to employment and other areas, and assist non-incarcerated Minnesotans to secure employment, self-sufficiency and stability.






If anyone sees the new Martin Scorsese film “The Irishman,” they will find an answer to one of the greatest missing person questions of all time: “What happened to Jimmy Hoffa?”  The film revisits one of the most corrupt periods in labor union history.  In 1967, Hoffa, who was president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT), was targeted by U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy, and he received a jail sentence (or “going to school” in felon parlance) for numerous offenses.


Hoffa’s misdeeds included misuse of pension funds, racketeering, bribery, jury tampering, and mail and wire fraud.  His actions epitomized an era of organized crime culminating in the government’s response in 1970 with passage of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act.  Hoffa’s political ambitions for regaining the IBT presidency are what got him killed, according to the film.  It appears this conclusion is likely but still debatable.

The IBT after Hoffa fared poorly, as far as government scrutiny is concerned. Probably the most important Civil/Rico labor racketeering case in history happened in 1988/89 in U.S. v. IBT when the federal government seized temporary operational control of the Teamster’s Union under a consent decree to settle racketeering and corruption charges.  The legal action was brought by none other than Rudy Giuliani, who was then U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York.  Court supervision of the Teamster’s ended in 2015 with a 5-year phase out agreement that should end this year.

The term “white collar crime” was coined by Edwin Sutherland in a 1939 speech to the American Sociological Association. In the past decade, white collar crime included corporate and/or government sector offenses such as bank, securities, and tax fraud, commodities and health care fraud, embezzlement, money laundering, and bribery. These exploits are certain to continue, with the additional appearances of obstruction of justice and election fraud crimes on the horizon.

The 6-volume title White Collar Crime owned by the law library is available in both print and online formats, provided by Thomson Reuters. The book covers all the topics mentioned here (and more), and it provides strategies for both the prosecution and defense, trial and evidentiary issues, ethics, attorneys fees, sentencing, and sample materials.  You can view the table of contents for this title via this link.  Better yet, come visit us in the law library and come use the book in person.

White Collar Crime